Adam Gazzaley, MD, PhD

Director
Neurology

Dr. Adam Gazzaley obtained an M.D. and Ph.D. in Neuroscience at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York, completed Neurology residency at the University of Pennsylvania, and postdoctoral training in cognitive neuroscience at University of California, Berkeley. He is currently the David Dolby Distinguished Professor of Neurology, Physiology and Psychiatry at University of California, San Francisco and the Founder & Executive Director of Neuroscape, a translational neuroscience center at UCSF engaged in technology creation and scientific research.

At Neuroscape, he leads the design and development of novel brain assessment and cognitive optimization technologies to advance education, wellness, and medicine practices. Neuroscape’s novel approach involves the development of custom-designed, closed-loop video games integrated with the latest advancements in software and hardware (virtual/augmented reality, motion capture, mobile physiological recording devices, transcranial electrical brain stimulation). These technologies are then advanced to rigorous, placebo-controlled research studies that evaluate their impact on cognition, as well as the neural mechanisms of these effects using a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

Dr. Gazzaley is co-founder and Chief Science Advisor of Akili Interactive, a company developing therapeutic video games and JAZZ Venture Partners, a venture capital firm investing in experiential technology to improve human performance. He has been a scientific advisor for over a dozen companies including Apple, GE, Nielsen, Deloitte, Magic Leap, and the VOID. He was a Science Board member of the President's Council on Fitness, Sports & Nutrition, and is currently a Board of Trustee and Science Council member of the California Academy of Sciences.

Dr. Gazzaley has filed multiple patents for his inventions, authored over 160 scientific articles, and delivered over 700 invited presentations around the world. His research and perspectives have been consistently profiled in high-impact media, such as The New York Times, New York Times Magazine, New Yorker, Wall Street Journal, TIME, Discover, Wired, PBS, NPR, CNN and NBC Nightly News. He wrote and hosted the nationally-televised PBS special “The Distracted Mind with Dr. Adam Gazzaley”, and co-authored the 2016 MIT Press book “The Distracted Mind: Ancient Brains in a High-Tech World”, winner of the 2017 PROSE Award in the category of Biomedicine and Neuroscience.Dr. Gazzaley has received many awards and honors, including the 2015 SfN Science Educator Award, the 2020 Global Gaming Citizen Honor and was named in Newsweek's 2021 Inaugural list of America’s Greatest Disruptors.

Publications: 

Research outside the laboratory: Longitudinal at-home neurostimulation.

Behavioural brain research

Jones KT, Smith CC, Gazzaley A, Zanto TP

Encapsulation and subjectivity from the standpoint of viewpoint theory.

The Behavioral and brain sciences

Morsella E, Velasquez AG, Yankulova JK, Li Y, Gazzaley A

Assessing Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis With Digital Tools: Observational Study.

Journal of medical Internet research

Hsu WY, Rowles W, Anguera JA, Anderson A, Younger JW, Friedman S, Gazzaley A, Bove R

Multimodal Biosensing for Vestibular Network-Based Cybersickness Detection.

IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics

Li G, Mcgill M, Brewster S, Chen CP, Anguera J, Gazzaley A, Pollick F

The Generation of Involuntary Mental Imagery in an Ecologically-Valid Task.

Frontiers in psychology

Velasquez AG, Gazzaley A, Toyoda H, Ziegler DA, Morsella E

Individual differences in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology predict effects of transcranial alternating current stimulation.

Brain stimulation

Zanto TP, Jones KT, Ostrand AE, Hsu WY, Campusano R, Gazzaley A

Linking inhibitory control to math achievement via comparison of conflicting decimal numbers.

Cognition

Coulanges L, Abreu-Mendoza RA, Varma S, Uncapher MR, Gazzaley A, Anguera J, Rosenberg-Lee M

Closed-loop Neurofeedback of Alpha Synchrony during Goal-directed Attention.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Mishra J, Lowenstein M, Campusano R, Hu Y, Diaz-Delgado J, Ayyoub J, Jain R, Gazzaley A

Reconfiguration of EEG microstate networks after breath-focused digital meditation training.

Brain connectivity

Brechet L, Ziegler DA, Simon AJ, Brunet D, Gazzaley A, Michel C

Virtual reality video game improves high-fidelity memory in older adults.

Scientific reports

Wais PE, Arioli M, Anguera-Singla R, Gazzaley A

Correction: Application of an Adaptive, Digital, Game-Based Approach for Cognitive Assessment in Multiple Sclerosis: Observational Study.

Journal of medical Internet research

Hsu WY, Rowles W, Anguera JA, Zhao C, Anderson A, Alexander A, Sacco S, Henry R, Gazzaley A, Bove R

Application of an Adaptive, Digital, Game-Based Approach for Cognitive Assessment in Multiple Sclerosis: Observational Study.

Journal of medical Internet research

Hsu WY, Rowles W, Anguera J, Zhao C, Anderson A, Alexander A, Sacco S, Henry R, Gazzaley A, Bove R

Corrigendum: Toward a Compassionate Intersectional Neuroscience: Increasing Diversity and Equity in Contemplative Neuroscience.

Frontiers in psychology

Weng HY, Ikeda MP, Lewis-Peacock JA, Chao MT, Fullwiley D, Goldman V, Skinner S, Duncan LG, Gazzaley A, Hecht FM

Toward a Compassionate Intersectional Neuroscience: Increasing Diversity and Equity in Contemplative Neuroscience.

Frontiers in psychology

Weng HY, Ikeda MP, Lewis-Peacock JA, Chao MT, Fullwiley D, Goldman V, Skinner S, Duncan LG, Gazzaley A, Hecht FM

Focus on the Breath: Brain Decoding Reveals Internal States of Attention During Meditation.

Frontiers in human neuroscience

Weng HY, Lewis-Peacock JA, Hecht FM, Uncapher MR, Ziegler DA, Farb NAS, Goldman V, Skinner S, Duncan LG, Chao MT, Gazzaley A

Multimodal sensory integration: Diminishing returns in rhythmic synchronization.

Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance

Johnson V, Hsu WY, Ostrand AE, Gazzaley A, Zanto TP

Temporal attention is not affected by working memory load.

Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior

Zanto TP, Liu H, Pan P, Gazzaley A

A novel in-home digital treatment to improve processing speed in people with multiple sclerosis: A pilot study.

Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England)

Bove R, Rowles W, Zhao C, Anderson A, Friedman S, Langdon D, Alexander A, Sacco S, Henry R, Gazzaley A, Feinstein A, Anguera JA

Linked Sources of Neural Noise Contribute to Age-related Cognitive Decline.

Journal of cognitive neuroscience

Tran TT, Rolle CE, Gazzaley A, Voytek B

Closed-loop digital meditation for neurocognitive and behavioral development in adolescents with childhood neglect.

Translational psychiatry

Mishra J, Sagar R, Parveen S, Kumaran S, Modi K, Maric V, Ziegler D, Gazzaley A

Enhanced Attention Using Head-mounted Virtual Reality.

Journal of cognitive neuroscience

Li G, Anguera JA, Javed SV, Khan MAA, Wang G, Gazzaley A

Involuntary attentional shifts as a function of set and processing fluency.

Acta psychologica

Gardner K, Walker EB, Li Y, Gazzaley A, Morsella E

A Tablet-Based Assessment of Rhythmic Ability.

Frontiers in psychology

Zanto TP, Padgaonkar NT, Nourishad A, Gazzaley A

How do we validate approaches that aim to harness reserve to improve the aging brain?

Neurobiology of aging

White LR, Boyle PA, Foster TC, Gazzaley AH, Disterhoft JF

Involuntary mental rotation and visuospatial imagery from external control.

Consciousness and cognition

Cushing D, Gazzaley A, Morsella E

Closed-loop digital meditation improves sustained attention in young adults.

Nature human behaviour

Ziegler DA, Simon AJ, Gallen CL, Skinner S, Janowich JR, Volponi JJ, Rolle CE, Mishra J, Kornfield J, Anguera JA, Gazzaley A

White Matter Microstructure Associations of Cognitive and Visuomotor Control in Children: A Sensory Processing Perspective.

Frontiers in integrative neuroscience

Brandes-Aitken A, Anguera JA, Chang YS, Demopoulos C, Owen JP, Gazzaley A, Mukherjee P, Marco EJ

Aging of the frontal lobe.

Handbook of clinical neurology

Zanto TP, Gazzaley A

A Videogame-Based Digital Therapeutic to Improve Processing Speed in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Feasibility Study.

Neurology and therapy

Bove RM, Rush G, Zhao C, Rowles W, Garcha P, Morrissey J, Schembri A, Alailima T, Langdon D, Possin K, Gazzaley A, Feinstein A, Anguera J

Using Mobile Apps to Assess and Treat Depression in Hispanic and Latino Populations: Fully Remote Randomized Clinical Trial.

Journal of medical Internet research

Pratap A, Renn BN, Volponi J, Mooney SD, Gazzaley A, Arean PA, Anguera JA

Characterizing cognitive and visuomotor control in children with sensory processing dysfunction and autism spectrum disorders.

Neuropsychology

Brandes-Aitken A, Anguera JA, Rolle CE, Desai SS, Demopoulos C, Skinner SN, Gazzaley A, Marco EJ

Recommendations for the Use of Serious Games in Neurodegenerative Disorders: 2016 Delphi Panel.

Frontiers in psychology

Manera V, Ben-Sadoun G, Aalbers T, Agopyan H, Askenazy F, Benoit M, Bensamoun D, Bourgeois J, Bredin J, Bremond F, Crispim-Junior C, David R, De Schutter B, Ettore E, Fairchild J, Foulon P, Gazzaley A, Gros A, Hun S, Knoefel F, Olde Rikkert M, Phan Tran MK, Politis A, Rigaud AS, Sacco G, Serret S, Thümmler S, Welter ML, Robert P

Enhancing Spatial Attention and Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults.

Journal of cognitive neuroscience

Rolle CE, Anguera JA, Skinner SN, Voytek B, Gazzaley A

Preparatory Encoding of the Fine Scale of Human Spatial Attention.

Journal of cognitive neuroscience

Voytek B, Samaha J, Rolle CE, Greenberg Z, Gill N, Porat S, Kader T, Rahman S, Malzyner R, Gazzaley A

Retrieval of high-fidelity memory arises from distributed cortical networks.

NeuroImage

Wais PE, Jahanikia S, Steiner D, Stark CEL, Gazzaley A

Spatial Attention and the Effects of Frontoparietal Alpha Band Stimulation.

Frontiers in human neuroscience

van Schouwenburg MR, Zanto TP, Gazzaley A

The Use and Effectiveness of Mobile Apps for Depression: Results From a Fully Remote Clinical Trial.

Journal of medical Internet research

Arean PA, Hallgren KA, Jordan JT, Gazzaley A, Atkins DC, Heagerty PJ, Anguera JA

Predictive cues and age-related declines in working memory performance.

Neurobiology of aging

Padgaonkar NA, Zanto TP, Bollinger J, Gazzaley A

Attentional updating and monitoring and affective shifting are impacted independently by aging in macaque monkeys.

Behavioural brain research

Gray DT, Smith AC, Burke SN, Gazzaley A, Barnes CA

Video Games for Neuro-Cognitive Optimization.

Neuron

Mishra J, Anguera JA, Gazzaley A

Training sensory signal-to-noise resolution in children with ADHD in a global mental health setting.

Translational psychiatry

Mishra J, Sagar R, Joseph AA, Gazzaley A, Merzenich MM

Conducting a fully mobile and randomised clinical trial for depression: access, engagement and expense.

BMJ innovations

Anguera JA, Jordan JT, Castaneda D, Gazzaley A, Areán PA

Passive frame theory: A new synthesis.

The Behavioral and brain sciences

Morsella E, Godwin CA, Jantz TK, Krieger SC, Gazzaley A

Age-Related Changes in 1/f Neural Electrophysiological Noise.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Voytek B, Kramer MA, Case J, Lepage KQ, Tempesta ZR, Knight RT, Gazzaley A

A Cognitive Paradigm to Investigate Interference in Working Memory by Distractions and Interruptions.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE

Janowich J, Mishra J, Gazzaley A

Homing in on consciousness in the nervous system: An action-based synthesis.

The Behavioral and brain sciences

Morsella E, Godwin CA, Jantz TK, Krieger SC, Gazzaley A

Neural sources of performance decline during continuous multitasking.

Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior

Al-Hashimi O, Zanto TP, Gazzaley A

Delayed enhancement of multitasking performance: Effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on the prefrontal cortex.

Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior

Hsu WY, Zanto TP, Anguera JA, Lin YY, Gazzaley A

Closed-loop cognition: the next frontier arrives.

Trends in cognitive sciences

Mishra J, Gazzaley A

Exploring the Potential of the iPad and Xbox Kinect for Cognitive Science Research.

Games for health journal

Rolle CE, Voytek B, Gazzaley A

External control of the stream of consciousness: Stimulus-based effects on involuntary thought sequences.

Consciousness and cognition

Merrick C, Farnia M, Jantz TK, Gazzaley A, Morsella E

Expectations of Task Demands Dissociate Working Memory and Long-Term Memory Systems.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Zanto TP, Clapp WC, Rubens MT, Karlsson J, Gazzaley A

Closed-loop rehabilitation of age-related cognitive disorders.

Seminars in neurology

Mishra J, Gazzaley A

Flavanol-rich food for thought.

Nature neuroscience

Pa J, Gazzaley A

Adaptive training diminishes distractibility in aging across species.

Neuron

Mishra J, de Villers-Sidani E, Merzenich M, Gazzaley A

Neural plasticity underlying visual perceptual learning in aging.

Brain research

Mishra J, Rolle C, Gazzaley A

Age-equivalent top-down modulation during cross-modal selective attention.

Journal of cognitive neuroscience

Guerreiro MJ, Anguera JA, Mishra J, Van Gerven PW, Gazzaley A

The functional oculomotor network and saccadic cognitive control in healthy elders.

NeuroImage

Pa J, Dutt S, Mirsky JB, Heuer HW, Keselman P, Kong E, Trujillo A, Gazzaley A, Kramer JH, Seeley WW, Miller BL, Boxer AL

Subjective aspects of working memory performance: memoranda-related imagery.

Consciousness and cognition

Jantz TK, Tomory JJ, Merrick C, Cooper S, Gazzaley A, Morsella E

A Conversation with Adam Gazzaley.

Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology

Gazzaley A, Narain C

Network dynamics predict improvement in working memory performance following donepezil administration in healthy young adults.

NeuroImage

Reches A, Laufer I, Ziv K, Cukierman G, McEvoy K, Ettinger M, Knight RT, Gazzaley A, Geva AB

Fronto-parietal network: flexible hub of cognitive control.

Trends in cognitive sciences

Zanto TP, Gazzaley A

Rapid functional reorganization in human cortex following neural perturbation.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Zanto TP, Chadick JZ, Satris G, Gazzaley A

Reconciling the influence of task-set switching and motor inhibition processes on stop signal after-effects.

Frontiers in psychology

Anguera JA, Lyman K, Zanto TP, Bollinger J, Gazzaley A

Conscious thoughts from reflex-like processes: a new experimental paradigm for consciousness research.

Consciousness and cognition

Allen AK, Wilkins K, Gazzaley A, Morsella E

Video game training enhances cognitive control in older adults.

Nature

Anguera JA, Boccanfuso J, Rintoul JL, Al-Hashimi O, Faraji F, Janowich J, Kong E, Larraburo Y, Rolle C, Johnston E, Gazzaley A

Cholinergic enhancement of functional networks in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

Annals of neurology

Pa J, Berry AS, Compagnone M, Boccanfuso J, Greenhouse I, Rubens MT, Johnson JK, Gazzaley A

A cognitive framework for understanding and improving interference resolution in the brain.

Progress in brain research

Mishra J, Anguera JA, Ziegler DA, Gazzaley A

Stimulating the aging brain.

Annals of neurology

Voytek B, Gazzaley A

Representations in working memory yield interference effects found with externally-triggered representations.

Acta psychologica

Hubbard J, Rigby T, Godwin CA, Gazzaley A, Morsella E

Prolonged disengagement from attentional capture in normal aging.

Psychology and aging

Cashdollar N, Fukuda K, Bocklage A, Aurtenetxe S, Vogel EK, Gazzaley A

Attention distributed across sensory modalities enhances perceptual performance.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Mishra J, Gazzaley A

How to Assess Gaming-Induced Benefits on Attention and Working Memory.

Games for health journal

Mishra J, Bavelier D, Gazzaley A

Top-down modulation: bridging selective attention and working memory.

Trends in cognitive sciences

Gazzaley A, Nobre AC

The impact of auditory distraction on retrieval of visual memories.

Psychonomic bulletin & review

Wais PE, Gazzaley A

Diminished top-down control underlies a visual imagery deficit in normal aging.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Kalkstein J, Checksfield K, Bollinger J, Gazzaley A

Can age-associated memory decline be treated?

The New England journal of medicine

D'Esposito M, Gazzaley A

Dissociation of motor and sensory inhibition processes in normal aging.

Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology

Anguera JA, Gazzaley A

Age-related changes in orienting attention in time.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Zanto TP, Pan P, Liu H, Bollinger J, Nobre AC, Gazzaley A

Deficit in switching between functional brain networks underlies the impact of multitasking on working memory in older adults.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Clapp WC, Rubens MT, Sabharwal J, Gazzaley A

Neural indices of improved attentional modulation over middle childhood.

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

Wendelken C, Baym CL, Gazzaley A, Bunge SA

An expectation-based memory deficit in aging.

Neuropsychologia

Bollinger J, Rubens MT, Masangkay E, Kalkstein J, Gazzaley A

Alzheimer's disease.

Network (Bristol, England)

Gazzaley A, Small SA

Expectation-driven changes in cortical functional connectivity influence working memory and long-term memory performance.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Bollinger J, Rubens MT, Zanto TP, Gazzaley A

The influence of perceptual training on working memory in older adults.

PloS one

Berry AS, Zanto TP, Clapp WC, Hardy JL, Delahunt PB, Mahncke HW, Gazzaley A

Neural mechanisms underlying the impact of visual distraction on retrieval of long-term memory.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Wais PE, Rubens MT, Boccanfuso J, Gazzaley A

Early top-down control of visual processing predicts working memory performance.

Journal of cognitive neuroscience

Rutman AM, Clapp WC, Chadick JZ, Gazzaley A

Subjective aspects of cognitive control at different stages of processing.

Attention, perception & psychophysics

Morsella E, Wilson LE, Berger CC, Honhongva M, Gazzaley A, Bargh JA

Predictive knowledge of stimulus relevance does not influence top-down suppression of irrelevant information in older adults.

Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior

Zanto TP, Hennigan K, Ostberg M, Clapp WC, Gazzaley A

Mechanisms of working memory disruption by external interference.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Clapp WC, Rubens MT, Gazzaley A

Practice-related improvement in working memory is modulated by changes in processing external interference.

Journal of neurophysiology

Berry AS, Zanto TP, Rutman AM, Clapp WC, Gazzaley A

Clinical-neuroimaging characteristics of dysexecutive mild cognitive impairment.

Annals of neurology

Pa J, Boxer A, Chao LL, Gazzaley A, Freeman K, Kramer J, Miller BL, Weiner MW, Neuhaus J, Johnson JK

Neural suppression of irrelevant information underlies optimal working memory performance.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Zanto TP, Gazzaley A

Age-related top-down suppression deficit in the early stages of cortical visual memory processing.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Gazzaley A, Clapp W, Kelley J, McEvoy K, Knight RT, D'Esposito M

Age-related deficits in component processes of working memory.

Neuropsychology

Gazzaley A, Sheridan MA, Cooney JW, D'Esposito M

Functional interactions between prefrontal and visual association cortex contribute to top-down modulation of visual processing.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Gazzaley A, Rissman J, Cooney J, Rutman A, Seibert T, Clapp W, D'Esposito M

Reducing vascular variability of fMRI data across aging populations using a breathholding task.

Human brain mapping

Handwerker DA, Gazzaley A, Inglis BA, D'Esposito M

Top-down modulation and normal aging.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Gazzaley A, D'Esposito M

Is the prefrontal cortex necessary for delay task performance? Evidence from lesion and FMRI data.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS

D'Esposito M, Cooney JW, Gazzaley A, Gibbs SE, Postle BR

Response bias and aging on a recognition memory task.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS

Huh TJ, Kramer JH, Gazzaley A, Delis DC

Top-down suppression deficit underlies working memory impairment in normal aging.

Nature neuroscience

Gazzaley A, Cooney JW, Rissman J, D'Esposito M

Top-down enhancement and suppression of the magnitude and speed of neural activity.

Journal of cognitive neuroscience

Gazzaley A, Cooney JW, McEvoy K, Knight RT, D'Esposito M

Functional connectivity during working memory maintenance.

Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience

Gazzaley A, Rissman J, D'Esposito M

Alterations in the BOLD fMRI signal with ageing and disease: a challenge for neuroimaging.

Nature reviews. Neuroscience

D'Esposito M, Deouell LY, Gazzaley A

The contribution of functional brain imaging to our understanding of cognitive aging.

Science of aging knowledge environment : SAGE KE

Gazzaley A, D'Esposito M

Dendritic spine plasticity in hippocampus.

Neuroscience

Gazzaley A, Kay S, Benson DL

Preserved number of entorhinal cortex layer II neurons in aged macaque monkeys.

Neurobiology of aging

Gazzaley AH, Thakker MM, Hof PR, Morrison JH

Differential subcellular regulation of NMDAR1 protein and mRNA in dendrites of dentate gyrus granule cells after perforant path transection.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Gazzaley AH, Benson DL, Huntley GW, Morrison JH

Differential regulation of NMDAR1 mRNA and protein by estradiol in the rat hippocampus.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Gazzaley AH, Weiland NG, McEwen BS, Morrison JH

Circuit-specific alterations of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 in the dentate gyrus of aged monkeys.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Gazzaley AH, Siegel SJ, Kordower JH, Mufson EJ, Morrison JH